Simple solutions for complex problems

Sitaram Naik

Global warming

Introduction

We cannot solve a problem without understanding the problem. This article starts with clearing the famous myth, “Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the root cause of global warming”. Then it explains how nature controls temperature on earth, how global warming has started and how humans have aggravated it. It explains role of CO2, clarifies all your doubts and ends with a solution to control global warming.

The famous myth

Most of the scientists believe that CO2 is the root cause of global warming. Read the below example to know how they proved it.

Proof

-12 = -12

9 – 21 = 16 – 28

3^2 – 2*3*(7/2) = 4^2 – 2*4*(7/2)

3^2 – 2*3*(7/2) + (7/2)^2 = 4^2 – 2*4*(7/2) + (7/2)^2

(3 – 7/2)^2 = (4 – 7/2)^2

3 – 7/2 = 4 – 7/2

3 = 4

So from now onwards, you can believe that 3 is equal to 4. This is how some of the climate scientists have proved that CO2 is root cause of global warming. And others are believing it blindly. In case of Mathematics, it is easy to find mistake in the proof. But in case of highly dynamic environment science, it is very difficult to pin point a mistake. So mistakes are also followed with same intensity.

All predictions that assume CO2 is root cause of global warming must have failed by now. If not, they will fail very soon. Even prediction of 4o C (4 degree centigrade) temperature increase in next 100 years is also wrong.

The problem is much bigger than that. If we don’t solve or control the problem, its effect will be seen in every part of the world. The extremes of temperature will be stretched by 10 to 15 degree C. The highest temperatures will increase by more than 10 degree C and the lowest temperature will decrease by more than 10 degree C. The durations of seasons will be stretched dynamically. The frequency of these extremes will increase decade by decade.

If you want the proof of my predictions, it is very simple. Take last 10 years data of any 5 regions of the world. It will match with one of them. Otherwise, take next 10 years data of any 5 regions of the world. It will match with at least 3 of them.

Because of the word “Warming”, everybody is trying to predict only increase in temperature and ignoring nature’s ability to reciprocate human changes.

Definitions

Vruxosphere: Atmosphere that trees can access

Gaganosphere: Atmosphere that trees cannot access, atmosphere beyond vruxosphere

These definitions are derived from ancient Indian language Sanskrit. Vruxam means tree. Gaganam means sky.

Solar light and heat

The only external source of heat for earth is solar light. Solar light carries heat and travels millions of miles. It never loses heat on the way. When the light ray is blocked completely, it loses heat. In other words, light ray releases heat when it dies. The molecule that blocks and kills the light ray gains the heat. The molecule that cannot reflect or refract the light gains the heat because it blocks the light ray completely.

Now we see who all can gain the heat from light. Light ray is very thin. It can pass through a molecule if it gets little space between two atoms. So blocking of light depends on the density of the molecules. Density of molecules is very low for gases. So gases cannot block light and gain heat unless there is a direct hit on one of the atoms. The possibility is very low and it is negligible comparing to the number of light rays reaching the earth. Molecular density of liquids is higher than gases. Molecules stay together in liquids. When a light ray hits an atom of a molecule, the molecule gains the heat and evaporates. We consider only water as liquid for our discussions because other liquids exposed to sun light are negligible compared to water on earth. When a top layer water molecule gains heat, it evaporates and become water vapour. It does not depend on the current temperature of the molecule. Water molecule is having a great property of living in vapour state at any temperature. If the light ray misses the top molecule and enters water, it refracts. If a molecule of inner layer gains heat, it becomes vapour, tries to come out, hits other molecules, loses some heat and comes back to liquid state. If the depth of the liquid is low, the refracted light reaches the solid and loses heat or reflects from there. Most of the solids kill light and gain heat unless the solid is fully transparent. Metals reflect light but very less. Only those light rays that hit top level atoms of metals get reflected completely. Once the light ray crosses top layer atoms, it hits inner atom and reflects. But the reflected light ray cannot come back from the same path it has gone. When it tries to move in other direction, it hits other atom and reflects. This process continues till the light gets killed or it gets a way to come out. In this process at every collision, it loses some heat. This is how metal gains heat very quickly though it reflects. Other property of metals is: it loses heat as quickly as it gains. This property holds good for other solids also. Solid loses heat as quickly as it gains.

Properties of water

The natural state of water is liquid. It always tries to stay in liquid state. The great property of water is that it can stay in gaseous state at any temperature. That means it can live as water vapour at any temperature. Water follows few simple rules to change state.

  1. Current state is solid or liquid: water takes gaseous state when it gains heat suddenly i.e. if there is sudden raise in temperature then water becomes vapour.
  2. Current state is solid: with slow raise in temperature, ice melts and takes liquid state.
  3. Current state is liquid: water takes solid state when it loses heat suddenly i.e. if there is sudden decrease in temperature then water becomes ice.
  4. Current state is liquid: with slow raise or slow fall in temperature, water stays in liquid state unless the temperature crosses boiling point or solidifying point.
  5. Current state is gas: water takes liquid state when it loses heat suddenly i.e. if there is sudden decrease in temperature then vapour becomes water. If there is further fall in temperature it gets solid state.
  6. Current state is gas: with slow fall in temperature, vapour stays in vapour state only as water molecule can live in vapour state at any temperature.
  7. Current state is gas: water vapour takes liquid state when it touches liquid water.

How the nature controls temperature on earth

When solar rays come to earth, they cross all gases and come to ground. Before touching ground some of the rays hit leaves of trees. Those leaves consume the light and heat for photosynthesis. Most of the solar rays that hit leaves get consumed as part of photosynthesis. The remaining solar rays reach ground. 2/3rds of ground is covered with water on earth. When a solar ray hits top layer water molecule, the water molecule gains heat, becomes water vapour, comes out of liquid water and travels upward in the air. If the solar ray moves inside the water, the heat is shared among many water molecules. In this sharing if any water molecule gain enough heat to become vapour, it comes out and moves up in the air. If the solar rays hit the solid particles of the ground, solid molecules gain all the heat and lose it to adjacent molecules. If there are any water molecules near that solid, the water molecules gain the heat and become vapour and move upwards in the air. If a solid gains heat, the heat is travelled in all directions till liquid or gas molecules gain all the heat. This way water on the ground or underground water gets evaporated to cool down the solids.

As the vapour state water molecule is excited with heat, it moves up to the top of the atmosphere. On the way if it hits any liquid or solid molecule, it loses some of its heat and stays there. Otherwise, when it stops at the top layer of atmosphere, it loses major part of heat. That heat gets emitted out of atmosphere. When a water molecule loses its heat, it tries to become liquid as liquid is the natural state of water. A single molecule cannot have liquid properties. It can get liquid properties only by joining other water molecules. When water gets cooled down, it cannot stay in low pressure area. So the cooled down water molecule moves down and reaches the layer where it gets comfortable pressure and temperature. As it is single, it stays in vapour state and looks for other water molecules. All vapour state water molecules tries to live in that pressure and temperature range, they all come together. When the cooled vapour state water molecules come together we see them as cloud. If the temperature on the ground is high, we see these clouds very far from the ground. If the temperature is low on ground, we see the clouds close to the ground. But they cannot get liquid state just by joining together. Vapour state water molecule gets liquid state in two cases: (1) when its temperature reduces suddenly (2) When it hits liquid state water molecule.

When ground cools down, the water clouds come close to the ground. If a wave of cold air from the ground moves up and touches water cloud, some of the vapour molecules lose temperature suddenly and become liquid. Then automatically adjacent connected vapour molecules get liquid state. This will repeat as chain reaction and we get rain. This way the extra heat is thrown out of atmosphere and the water comes back to ground.

This is how our planet is maintaining temperature for millions of years and giving comfortable temperature for life to exist.

How global warming has started

When factories started long ago, the pollution created by these factories had effect on health of employees and people living around the factory. Then they found chimney as the solution. Erected long chimneys on top of factories and felt that pollution problem was solved. They never thought that the pollution they were creating would become the major problem of the world.

How is air pollution causing problem?

Only the factory waste (smoke) that is emitted or blown out into the air is considered for discussion though vehicle exhaust gas and fumes of all fuel burning products also cause same effect. When smoke comes of out a factory, it will have many solid, liquid and gaseous particles in it. The poisonous gases are dangerous for living beings. The particulates are more dangerous than gases. Now we discuss how the solid particulates harm nature.

  1. The heavy solid particles which are emitted in to the air slowly come back to ground because of the gravity. If tree leaves come on the way, these particulates settle on those leaves. Over a period of time, these particulates form a layer on leaves. The process of photosynthesis is hampered because both sun light and carbon dioxide are blocked by the solid layer of particulates. There is more CO2 and heat in the environment as leaves are not consuming them.
  2. As these particulates move along with air, these are consumed by humans and animals while breathing. As these are fine particles, they stick to the inner walls of the lungs or settle down at bottom of lungs. These particulates cause many health problems. The health problems range from simple cold & cough to cancer & death.
  3. Fine solid particulates that cannot come down to ground with gravity stays there and moves along with air. They slowly get attached to other solid particulates and form a solid cloud. This is the starting point of global warming. The solid cloud blocks sun light and consumes heat on top. It also blocks radiation of earth and consumes heat from bottom. As we discussed earlier, solid cannot keep heat with it for a longer time. It loses heat to the surrounding molecules. As these solids are in the air, they cannot transfer heat to water molecules. So the heat is transferred to other gas molecules. With very slow increase in temperature gas molecules are not excited. So the warm gas molecules stay in the same pressure band. Blockage of solar rays on the way is hampering the nature's cycle of temperature control. As the clouds and their sizes are increasing continuously every day, the air is getting heated up at that pressure range. The cooled down water molecules that are supposed to come back and form water clouds, are staying very far from ground because there is more temperature in the middle layer. The cold air from ground is not able to reach water clouds by crossing the hot air layer. Hence the chance of rain is reduced. Air cannot stay at one place. The hot air moves across the world warming up whole world.

What is the contribution of CO2 in global warming?

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is getting accumulated in the environment because heated CO2 is going out of vruxosphere. The CO2 which lies within vruxosphere can be consumed and converted to oxygen by the process of photosynthesis. Once the CO2 crosses vruxosphere and reaches gaganosphere, there is no mechanism to bring it back or to consume. That's why the CO2 is getting accumulated in the environment.

Why is CO2 going up? CO2 is generated by burning fuel. Heated gases tend to move up faster to reach low pressure area. As CO2 is heated and excited, it moves upwards very fast and reaches low pressure range. CO2 loses its heat there and stays there. Gases tend to remain in their pressure band and move around the earth. Gases don't jump from one pressure range to another unless some external force pushes them. Once a gas molecule is moved to another pressure range because of external force, it tries to stay there forever. That's why all gas molecules are available in all parts of our atmosphere.

One concept of global warming says that CO2 can hold/keep heat with it and with large accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere, large amount of heat is getting accumulated. Now the doubt is: what is the problem when CO2 does not leave heat from it. Why should environment become warm or hot when somebody holds heat? First of all let us try to answer the question, how does CO2 gain heat? There are only two possibilities. (1) It gains heat when it is created. (2) It gains heat later.

  1. CO2 gains heat when it is created: In this case, CO2 is not the problem. Something is heated and CO2 is created in the process. Along with other gases CO2 also takes some heat and comes out from there. We cannot blame CO2 for the generated heat.
  2. CO2 gains heat later: In this case, the question is, from where/whom does it gain heat? If it gains heat from other gas, liquid or solid molecules, we cannot blame CO2 because heat is already there in the environment. The heat is just getting exchanged from molecule to molecule. If CO2 is gaining heat from solar light and leaving it in the environment then we can blame CO2. This is the commonly told reason of global warming. But gases cannot block solar light and gain solar heat. That too, a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas like CO2 cannot block solar light. If CO2 can gain solar heat then all other gases can also do the same thing. Similarly if CO2 can block Earth’s radiation from going out of environment, all other gases can also do it. Then there is no point in blaming only CO2.

Even before humans gained knowledge, earth had many processes to convert solid & liquids to gases and to bring back gases to solids. With all complex processes our planet used to keep the amount of gas more or less constant. Humans started burning solids as they gained knowledge. The burning increased ever since. Every time we burn solids or liquids, we create lot of gases. If it is one time burn, nature takes care of it. But the burning was continuous and increased every day. So the gas accumulation in the environment was continuously increasing.

In recent centuries, we gained so much knowledge that we could extract the fuels that were hidden deep inside the earth. And started burning all that. As these fuels burn faster and create large amounts of gases, gas accumulation in the environment increased exponentially. The air pressure has increased drastically. There is direct relation between pressure and temperature. Temperature increases when pressure increases. It may be one reason for global warming.

Atmosphere may be expanding because of the pressure. With loss of weight in one part of core and with increase in diameter of the atmosphere, the planet is losing its balance. When these gaps are exposed to solar gravity, some parts of earth moves suddenly. These sudden movements are called earth quakes.

So if we create any gas, carbon dioxide or oxygen or any other gas limitlessly, it disturbs nature. Then, why are we talking only about carbon dioxide? It is because carbon dioxide is occupying maximum percentage of generated gases. Now we understand that quantity is the problem. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is not a problem.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an opportunity

Nature likes CO2. CO2 is life for trees. With availability of sufficient amounts of CO2 in the environment, trees can consume lot of solar light & heat and grow faster. With faster growth of trees, they can consume more CO2 and more solar heat. So CO2 cannot create global warming. It can only reduce global warming. Trees create solid fruits and vegetables, solid leaves and branches. That means the transformation of gases to solid accelerates. In this way, over a period of time, earth can stabilize gases to solids ratio also.

It looks very good. But why is it not happening now? Because:

  1. Humans are cutting and killing trees. Reduction in number of trees reduces CO2 consumption and stops further process.
  2. Leaves of living trees are covered with solid dust. There is huge amounts of CO2 and solar light available but not reachable to leaves because leaves are covered with solids. Proper example of starvation. Slowly the leaves and then the trees die.
  3. CO2 accumulation is high only at some parts of the world. If large forests exist very far from CO2 accumulation areas, CO2 consumption cannot happen. Those forests may be starving for CO2 as humans are not allowing even animals to live in forests. Highly populated cities have large amounts of CO2 and less number of trees. Remote villages have forests but less CO2.
  4. CO2 is not reachable to trees. This is the most important point that needs immediate attention. The CO2 molecule that is generated in the process of burning something is highly heated and excited. It moves very fast towards low pressure layers away from the ground. After crossing many pressure layers, it loses heat. As CO2 is a gas, it stays in that pressure range unless external force pushes it. So all heated and excited CO2 molecules move very far from ground and live there forever. Trees can consume CO2 that is available in vruxosphere. So CO2 that has crossed the vruxosphere and reached gaganosphere is not getting consumed. Though we have large amounts of CO2 in the environment, trees are unable to access it.

Many times forests were burnt, volcanoes erupted, why are we not saying global warming is because of them?

When volcano is burst or a full forest is burnt, lot of solid dust raises in the atmosphere and stay there in the air for long periods of time. As we discussed earlier, these solid particles also cause global warming but with a major difference. When the volcano cools down or when the forest is completely burnt, the raising of smoke and dust stops. Now the problem is only with dust that is already pushed in to the air. Over a period of time heavy solid particles slowly settle down on ground. Other particles move along with the air and spreads all over the world. If it rains at one place, all dust particles of that place were cleaned from the air. These dust particles keep moving and gets cleaned at one place or the other. Over a period of one year, most of the dust particles were cleaned from the air. Earth comes back to its normal cycle and maintains temperature.

Why is nature not cleaning human created pollution?

Nature is cleaning human created pollution also. Nature is trying to bring back the normal temperature of earth. But humans are not allowing it to do. Nature generally takes about one year to clean dust from the atmosphere. Before nature starts cleaning yesterday's pollution, we are adding more today. Addition of daily pollution is hampering nature's process of cleaning and it is also reducing the nature's ability to clean the pollution.

Why Ice Mountains are melting with global warming but not with solar heat?

When a solar ray hits a top layer water molecule of ice, it gains sudden heat and changes its state to gas. That means it becomes water vapour. But the temperature is not enough for it to move very far from ground. So it keeps moving as vapour close to the ice. If the vapour hits the ice, it loses heat suddenly and changes its state to liquid and then to solid. If the solar ray hits an inner layer molecule of ice, that molecule changes state to vapour, tries to move up and hits other molecules of ice. When vapour molecule hits ice, it changes state to liquid and then immediately to solid. Hence solar light cannot melt ice directly. It can only create few vapour molecules. But what happens to the solar heat that solar light lost? When an inner molecule gains heat, it loses heat to surrounding molecules. The heat is shared among many molecules. Those molecules share the heat to other molecules. This process continues till the heat reaches top layer molecules. When top layer molecule gains heat slowly, it changes its state to liquid. If the environment temperature is comfortable for water to stay in liquid state i.e. greater than 0 degree centigrade (00 C), it stay in liquid state. With gravity it may flow down. If the environment temperature is less than 00 C then the liquid water loses its heat to other gas molecules and comes back to solid state. Same process happens when vapour state water molecule hits ice. The heat gained by ice is distributed among many molecules and gives slow raise in temperature to top layer molecule.

When warmed up or heated gas molecules come near to Ice Mountains, they warm up the environment slowly. When gas molecules hit ice, ice gains the heat and distributes it to many molecules and creates liquid water. As environment is also warmed up, water stays in liquid state. Liquid water flows down the mountain never to come back. This warming up process happens as long as our pollution continues. But the rate of melting of ice increases every day with the continuous raise in temperature of the globe.

If few solid particulates manage to travel longer along with air and reach ice mountains, they get stuck to ice. In presence of solar light, ice melts faster with solid dust on it compared to clean ice. It is very dangerous because when ice melts and water flows down, these heavy solid particulates again get stuck to the ice that is there at bottom of the flowing water and stay there for much longer time, further melting more ice.

Summary of the problem

  1. Solid dust in the air is causing global warming
  2. Addition of huge amounts of gases in the environment is supporting global warming
  3. As CO2 occupies highest percentage of emitted gases, it is an opportunity for humans to help nature.

Solution

  1. Stop adding solid dust to the air
  2. Cool down CO2 and other gases when generated
  3. Increase number of trees where CO2 production is high

The complete solution that covers all 3 points is given with title, “Simple techniques to clear air pollution and to control global warming” athttp://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/WO2014006634 and at http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014006634A2?cl=en

This solution clears air pollution caused by factories, vehicles and other products that burn fuel (like generators, etc).

Read Air Pollution article to understand health problems caused by air pollution and how this solution controls them.