Simple techniques to clear air pollution and to control global warming
This is an internationally patented design of a product which can clear air pollution and control global warming. This text is also available on WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) website http://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/WO2014006634. This design is currently available royalty free. It means that anyone can use the design for personal or commercial purpose without paying royalty.
Simple techniques to clear air pollution and to control global warming are given as a process that can be applied to all major sources of air pollution especially factories and vehicles.
Air pollution is known as a root cause of many diseases and health problems and also known as an aggravating factor of many life threatening diseases. According to a group of scientists, high levels of particulates and carbon dioxide in the air is causing global warming.
The given process filters solid, liquid and some of the gaseous pollutants at source and consumes a large amount of carbon dioxide.
Field of invention
Air pollution, global warming, health problems, factories and vehicles
Background of invention
Air pollution is known as a root cause of many diseases and health problems and also known as an aggravating factor of many life threatening diseases. Out of health hazards of air pollution, more than 99% of health hazards are because of solid and liquid pollutants of the air.
Burning fuels including coal create large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). A group of scientists claim that large accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment is causing global warming.
Solid and liquid pollutants (particulates)
Solid and liquid pollutants (particulates), when inhaled, stick to lung walls and damage them over a period of time. These pollutants get mixed in blood and reach all parts of the body including brain and other important nerves and cause many irreversible damages. Along with humans, these health hazards are common in animals, birds and all creatures that breathe air.
Heavy particulates are pulled down to ground with gravity when air flow slows down. These particulates settle on leaves of trees and form a solid layer. This solid layer blocks sun light and carbon dioxide which are essential for photosynthesis and for a leaf to live. As solid particulates are available in air every day, solid layers are formed on new leaves also. Trees are unable to create their food unless rains wash out these solid layers regularly.
With heavy and continuous solid air pollution from factories, smoke clouds are formed in the sky. When it rains, the particulates dissolve in to or get mixed with rain water. The polluted rain water pollutes rivers, lakes, streams and all other water bodies. With rain water harvesting and ground water refilling, the polluted rain water reaches underground and pollutes ground water also. All the creatures including trees (other than sea-creatures) that depend on water are facing health hazards.
Temperature on earth depends on altitude. As solar rays and solar heat reach ground, surface of earth (zero altitude or sea level) records highest temperature in the atmosphere and the temperature gradually reduces as altitude increases. Water stays in solid state (ice) on tall mountains from a particular altitude and above where the temperature is low. Solid clouds (or smoke clouds) stay at higher altitude, block solar light, consume solar heat and behave as surface of earth. With continuous consumption of heat, these clouds gain "zero altitude temperature" and start a new temperature range from their altitude and above. Automatically mountains that have ice at higher altitudes start melting as temperature at that altitude has increased. Other high altitude areas on earth also gain high temperatures. In other words, solid clouds almost double high temperature range on earth. Solid particulates that travel to the poles settle down on ice and polar ice starts melting because ice with solid dust melts faster than clean shining ice. When solid clouds are cleared from the environment, automatically high temperature range on earth comes down and global warming effect reverses.
In simple terms, particulates are causing many health hazards to most of the living creatures including trees and also causing global warming and damages to the nature.
Gaseous pollutant - Carbon dioxide
Large accumulation of carbon dioxide is actually good for growth of trees. With availability of sufficient amounts of carbon dioxide in the environment, tree can consume lot of solar light and heat and grow faster. As trees grow they consume more carbon dioxide and more solar heat. So levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the environment should get balanced automatically. But the percentage of carbon dioxide is growing continuously in the environment. The reasons are:
- Humans are cutting and killing trees. Reduction in number of trees reduces carbon dioxide consumption.
- Leaves of living trees are covered with solid dust (particulates). Huge amounts of carbon dioxide and solar light are available in the environment but inaccessible to leaves. Slowly the leaves die and then the trees.
- Carbon dioxide accumulation is high only at some parts of the world. If large forests exist very far from carbon dioxide accumulated areas, carbon dioxide consumption cannot happen. Those forests may be starving for carbon dioxide as animal population is also reduced in forests. Highly populated cities have large amounts of carbon dioxide and less number of trees. Remote villages have forests but less carbon dioxide.
- Carbon dioxide is not reachable to trees. This is the most important point that needs immediate attention. The carbon dioxide molecule that is generated in the process of burning something (fuel) is highly heated and excited. It moves very fast towards low pressure layers of the atmosphere. After crossing many pressure layers, it loses heat and stays there. Usually natural gases do not change pressure layers. So all heated and excited carbon dioxide molecules move very far from ground and stay there forever. Trees can consume only the molecules that touch leaves. The other carbon dioxide molecules that have reached gaganosphere (atmosphere that trees cannot access) are not consumed or converted. So large amount of carbon dioxide is getting accumulated in gaganosphere of the environment.
Vruxosphere: Atmosphere that trees can access
Gaganosphere: Atmosphere that trees cannot access, atmosphere beyond vruxosphere
These definitions are derived from ancient Indian language Sanskrit. Vruxam means tree. Gaganam means sky.
Sources of air pollution
Factories release large quantities of particulates continuously into the air. Vehicle produce very less quantity of particulates compared to a factory. But large number of vehicles and high density of vehicles on the road in peak hours produces huge quantity of particulates where density of human population is high. Air pollution from vehicles largely damages health of people. Air pollution from factories damages whole nature. The major part of air pollution consists of pollutants of factories and vehicles. Other sources of air pollution are generators and other diesel and petrol equipments. Though these equipments are sparsely used, the techniques given in this document can be used to filter particulates generated by them also.
Object of invention
A process with techniques to filter solid, liquid and some of the gaseous pollutants using water and to reduce carbon dioxide from the environment
Summary of invention
A process is defined that covers the techniques to filter solid, liquid and some of the gaseous pollutants using water from the two main sources of air pollution, factories and vehicles. It also covers techniques to consume large amounts of carbon dioxide and to accelerate consumption of carbon dioxide in the environment.
This process involves usage of multiple connected water tanks with air splitter installed in each water tank. Chimneys of factories or exhausts of vehicles are connected to inlet of first tank of connected water tanks so that emissions pass through all connected water tanks. The filtered and cooled gases emit out from the outlet of the last tank.
In case of vehicles, plant grids are also installed on roof of each vehicle. Plant grid is a rectangular grid with a flowerpot at one corner and one or more plants (creepers or vines) covering whole grid.
Detailed description of the invention
Detailed description starts with description of the objects that need to be created and used in this process, followed by explanation of how the process is used in factories and vehicles and ends with benefits of implementation of this process.
Air splitter design
- Air splitter blocks the flow of polluted air, consumes heat and allows the air to flow through small holes as bubbles so that more particulates get filtered in water. It slows down flow of input air and also cools down.
- Pyramid shape is best suited for air splitter and it is easy to create, though shape of air splitter can be hemisphere, ellipsoid or any other shape.
- Size of air splitter should be such that it should fit within the water tank by leaving enough space for fixing input pipe from any side. That means that margins should be given in all sides and at bottom also. Height of the air splitter can be approximately half of inner height of the tank. Holes are made on surface of the air splitter at regular intervals so that air bubbles do not join together. The holes near (center) tip of the pyramid (air splitter) should be very small. Diameters of holes are increased as holes move away from (center) tip.
- Air splitter is expected to consume heat of polluted air. Any metal can be used to create air splitter including copper, steel, brass, aluminium and tin. Cheap and best option is tin.
Water tank design
- Water tank filters particulates with help of water and air splitter. Solids and liquids get mixed up with water. Some of the gases that can react with water complete their reaction and get mixed up with water. Water consumes heat of the polluted gas with help of air splitter. So most of the harmful contents of polluted air are filtered in this design.
- Shape of the water tank is a six sided rectangular box. It consists of four side walls, one top wall and one bottom wall. Cylindrical or other shaped water tanks can also be used. But the shape of rectangular box is best to optimize space.
- An out-knob (means projected outside) is fixed along with air-tight cap on the top wall (or on one of the side walls near the top wall) for filling water into the tank.
- An out-knob close to bottom wall on one of the side walls for releasing water from the tank is also fixed along with air-tight cap.
- A small slope can be introduced for the bottom plane of the tank so that the accumulated solids settle near the bottom out-knob. When the knob is opened, the solid pollutants exhaust first. After solids are discharged, the knob can be closed to conserve water.
- An inlet and an outlet on same wall or on two different side walls at ¾ (three-fourth) height of the tank are set. Having same height for both inlet and outlet is better.
- One end of a pipe is connected to the inner side of inlet and the other end of the pipe is kept open at bottom-center of the tank. The opening of the pipe is kept upwards so that when air comes out of the pipe, the bobbles move straight upwards.
- Connect a simple valve at end of the pipe to allow air to come out and to block water from entering the pipe.
- An out-knob can be fixed at outlet to release the filtered air.
- An out-knob can be fixed at inlet to easily attach pipe coming from chimney of factory or exhaust of vehicle.
- A pyramid shaped air splitter with varying size holes is kept in the water tank fully immersed in the water. It splits input air into many small bubbles. It is placed at center of the tank.
- Detachable top cover for water tank is best to change or clean air splitter when holes get closed with solid-fills.
- Approximately ¾ (75%) of tank is filled with water. As level of water required is same as level of inlet and outlet, filling of water can be stopped when water comes out of outlet.
Multiple connected water tanks design
- When polluted air passes through water, some of the particulates get filtered in the water but all particulates will not be filtered in single pass. So it is better to pass the polluted air through multiple connected water tanks to filter particulates.
- When two water tanks are used, the outlet of first tank becomes inlet of second tank. To optimize space and cost, single wall can be shared as outlet wall for first tank and inlet wall for second tank.
- When more than two tanks are used, each tank shares one or more walls with other tanks.
- Tanks can be arranged from side to side and also from top to bottom to optimize space required when many water tanks are used.
- When tanks are stacked (top to bottom), keeping one of the top layer tanks as first tank is better for refilling water. Keeping first few tanks at top layer with detachable cover makes maintenance of air splitter easy.
- As heights of inlet and outlet are same for each tank and height of inlet of connected tank is same or lower (in case of stacked tanks), pouring water in first tank can fill all tanks. Water needs to be filled till water comes out of outlet of last tank.
Plant grid design
- Millions of trees including small, big and centuries-old trees are cut to create and extend roads and train tracks in every country. That is a major loss for the nature. Plant grid design gives a great opportunity for vehicle owners to repay nature as the land occupied for roads and train tracks will never be returned for planting trees.
- Vehicles that do not have luggage compartment on roof need to get it fixed. It can be done by fixing two rods permanently at two longer sides of the roof of the vehicle with enough margins.
- A simple rectangular grid is created as: Four sticks are arranged to form a rectangle. All four joints are tied with thin strong rope. Many ropes/cords are tied to parallel sticks to form horizontal and vertical lines inside the rectangle with approximately equal space between adjacent parallel lines to form a grid. A flowerpot is tied securely at one corner of this grid. One or more creepers or vines are grown on each rectangular grid with their roots in the flowerpot. A rectangular grid or any other shaped grid with one or more plants is called plant grid. Plant grid can be made in any shape like circular, oval, square, triangle and so on. But rectangular or square shape is more suitable for vehicles.
- Rectangular grid can be made with any material like metal, plastic, wood and so on. Size of the rectangular grid is decided depending on the target vehicle.
- One or more plant grids can be used for each vehicle. Small vehicles (like cars and 3-wheelers) can have one plant grid whereas big vehicles (like buses, trucks and trains) can have many plant grids.
- Plants with weak stem that derives support from climbing, twining or creeping along a surface (creepers or vines), grass beds, low height plants and other small plants can be used as greenery on vehicles.
- Plant grids are detachable. For servicing a vehicle, the plant grids of the vehicle can be detached easily, placed on ground and refixed after servicing. It should be a single person operation for small vehicles.
- In case the vehicle needs to stay in garage for many days, the plant grids can be detached and placed in balcony or on the terrace.
- Plant grids can be exchanged with botanical gardens or farmers who grow and sell these plant grids. This exchange can happen when the plant starts shedding leaves or when owner of the vehicle likes to have different plant. Numerous plant options are available for the customer like various colors and shapes of flowers, leaves, vegetables and fruits.
Solution for factories
Multiple connected water tanks design has to be implemented for each chimney of a factory. All the water tanks are filled with water. The output of chimney is connected to the inlet of first water tank.
Water can be taken from any source for filling these tanks. Sea water is good option for factories as water requirement is high. When sea water is used, it is better to use non-salty water in at least one tank preferably the last tank.
Emptying and refilling of water is done for a tank when accumulation of solid particulates crosses the predefined limit.
Frequency of refilling depends on production of particulates and size of water tank and also tank number in the sequence. The frequency is high for first tank, less for subsequent tanks and the least for last tank.
Sufficient sizes should be selected for water tanks depending on the production of particulates to reduce frequency of water refilling.
If the production of particulates is constant then the frequency of refilling of each tank can be recorded and followed without verification of solid accumulation.
This process filters solids, liquids and some gases that react with water. If the factory produces some poisonous gases that do not react with water, suitable chemicals that can react with the poisonous gases can be mixed in one of the water tanks (preferably the last one).
This process cools down the emitted gases. The cooled emitted gases like carbon dioxide stay longer in vruxosphere and get consumed by trees.
Some factories produce huge quantities of carbon dioxide. The trees in that area may not be able to consume so much. Leaving the huge quantities of cooled down carbon dioxide in vruxosphere may be harmful for humans and leaving so much carbon dioxide in gaganosphere is harmful for nature. So the best solution is to pump complete carbon dioxide production to the nearby forest. A gas pipeline has to be created starting from outlet of the last water tank to middle of the forest. Forest can consume large part of the produced carbon dioxide. Multiple factories can supply carbon dioxide to one forest and one factory can supply carbon dioxide to multiple forests also.
With this process, a highly polluting factory becomes non-polluting factory without reducing or controlling its productivity.
The accumulated solid particulates can be used for other business or purpose. Example: (1) Emissions of cement factory may get hardened when it is dried. So if it is hardened in brick shape, the emissions can produce bricks. (2) Emissions of coal factories have lot of carbon products. So these accumulated carbon solids can be used as pesticides in drainages. Similarly emissions of each factory can be used for a purpose.
Solution for vehicles
Multiple connected water tanks design has to be implemented for each vehicle. All the water tanks are filled with water. End of the exhaust is connected to the inlet of first water tank.
Small motor vehicles including 2-wheelers and 3-wheelers and very less polluting vehicles can have two water tanks. Other vehicles can have many connected water tanks depending on their level of pollution.
Water tanks can be fixed permanently to the vehicle or a groove can be made to place the tanks.
Detachable top covers are kept for all tanks so that level of accumulated solid pollutants can be checked directly by opening the top cover and also cleaning of air splitter can be done easily.
One or more plant grids are installed on top of each vehicle.
This process filters particulates and cools down the emitted gases. The cooled emitted gases like carbon dioxide stay longer in vruxosphere. As plant grids are always available with vehicles, consumption of carbon dioxide is high.
At peak traffic hours, both release of carbon dioxide and greenery on roads are high. And no particulates are released in air. So the scenery looks like a moving garden.
- Farmers get more work as they need to grow plant grids.
- Small scale local business for manufacturing water tanks and air splitters suitably for various types of vehicles.
- Labourers get maintenance work to install and remove plant grids from vehicles and also to cut out-grown branches.
- Plant grids block solar light, consume heat and keep the vehicle cool. AC requirement comes down drastically and fuel is saved.
- As water tanks filter particulates, air is free of pollution. Pollution free air encourages people to open vehicle windows for fresh air. That avoids AC usage completely and saves fuel.
- When air is free of pollution, people prefer to walk or use bicycle for short distances. That solves both traffic and fuel problems.
- All health problems caused by air pollution vanish.
- Animals, birds and all other living creatures are also benefitted by pollution free air.
- Rain water pollution stops.
- Plant grids with various colors of flowers and leaves will give a great look for vehicles. The road will look like a moving garden.
- Plant grids can also be kept in balconies or on roof as decoration. Plant grids can be alternatives for balcony flowerpots. When whole family is out of station for a long duration, these plant grids can be given to friends or relatives for watering as these are easily transportable.
- As solid particulates do not accumulate on leaves and cooled carbon dioxide is available in vruxosphere, trees consume a lot of carbon dioxide and grow.
- All particulates are filtered at source, smoke clouds or solid clouds get cleared and the problem of global warming is solved.
- Use of one or more connected water tanks of various sizes to filter solid, liquid and some of the gaseous pollutants generated from factories, vehicles, equipments and other establishments that produce air pollutants.
- Use of air splitters in water tanks to slow down air flow, to reduce bubble sizes and to consume heat.
- Use of water, chemicals or mix of water and chemicals in water tanks.
- Use of slope at bottom wall of the water tank for easy flush out of solid pollutants to conserve water.
- Use of one or more plant grids on vehicle to consume carbon dioxide or to consume heat or as a shade or as a decoration or for any other purpose.